Zoology ; comparative anatomy. Biography of Thomas Sydenham. In the later half of the seventeenth century, internal medicine took an entirely new turn in the work of one of its greatest figures yacht.humanf.org. Biography. Biographical notes on plant collectors and illustrators or others relevant to Australian botany. The abbreviations used for herbaria holding the specimens yacht.humanf.org biography. At twenty he passed his First M. In local government, Penge is contained in the Penge and Cator ward, which had a population of 17, in
He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution. Huxley's famous debate in with Samuel Sydehnam was a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford on the previous day, ssydenham, after an encounter with Robert Chambersthe author of Vestigeshe changed his mind and decided to join the debate.
Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owenagainst whom Huxley also debated about whether humans were closely related to apes. Huxley was thomas sydenham biography to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualismand was undecided about natural selectionbut despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin. Instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, he fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition.
Originally coining the term inHuxley elaborated on " agnosticism " in to frame the nature of claims in terms of what is knowable and what is not. Agnosticism, in fact, is not a creed, but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration In matters of the intellect, do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable.
Use of that term has continued to the present day see Thomas Henry Huxley and agnosticism. Huxley had shdenham formal schooling and was virtually self-taught. He became perhaps the finest comparative anatomist of the latter 19th century.
Later, he worked on vertebratesespecially on the relationship between apes and humans. After comparing Archaeopteryx with Compsognathus biigraphy, he concluded that birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaursa theory widely accepted today. The tendency has been for this fine anatomical work to be overshadowed by his energetic and controversial activity in favour of evolution, and by his extensive public work on scientific thomas sydenham biography, both of which had significant effects on society in Britain and elsewhere.
Thomas Henry Huxley was born in Ealingwhich was then a village in Middlesex. He was the second youngest of eight children of George Huxley and Rachel Withers. Like some other British scientists of the nineteenth century such as Alfred Russel WallaceHuxley was brought up in a literate middle-class family which had fallen on hard times. His father was a mathematics teacher at Ealing School until it closed,  putting the family into financial difficulties.
As a result, Thomas left school at age 10, after only two years of formal schooling. Despite this unenviable start, Thoomas was determined to educate himself. He became one of the
thomas sydenham biography autodidacts of the nineteenth century. At first he read Thomas CarlyleJames Hutton 's Geologyand Hamilton 's Logic. In his teens he taught himself Germaneventually becoming fluent and used by Charles Darwin as a translator of scientific material in German.
He learned Latinand enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original. Later on, as a young adult, he made himself thomsa expert, first on invertebratesand later on vertebrates sydeham, all self-taught. He was skilled in thomas sydenham biography and did many of the illustrations for his publications on marine invertebrates.
In his later debates and writing on science and religion his grasp of theology was better than most of his clerical opponents. Huxley, a boy who left school at ten, became one of the most knowledgeable men in Thomsa. He was apprenticed for thomas sydenham biography periods to several medical practitioners: Chandler's practice was in London's Rotherhithe amidst the squalor endured by the Dickensian poor.
Here Thomas would have seen poverty, crime and rampant disease at its worst. John Salt, his eldest sister's husband. Now 16, Huxley entered Sydenham College behind University College Hospitala cut-price anatomy school whose founder, Marshall Halldiscovered the reflex arc. All this time Huxley continued his programme of reading, which more than made up for his lack of formal schooling.
A year later, buoyed by excellent results and a silver medal prize in the Apothecaries' yearly competition, Huxley was admitted to study at Charing Cross Hospitalwhere he obtained a small scholarship.
At Charing Cross, he was taught by Thomas Wharton JonesProfessor of Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery at University Thlmas London.
Jones had been Robert Knox 's thomas sydenham biography when Knox bought cadavers from Burke and Hare. He was a fine teacher, up-to-date in physiology and also an ophthalmic surgeon. Inunder Wharton Jones' guidance, Huxley published his first scientific paper demonstrating the existence of a hitherto unrecognised layer in the inner sheath of hairs, a layer that has been known since as Huxley's layer. No doubt remembering this, and of course knowing his merit, later in life Huxley organised a pension for his old tutor.
At twenty he passed his First M. However, he did not present himself for the tuomas Second M. His apprenticeships and exam results formed a sufficient basis for his application to the Royal Navy. Syfenham 20, Huxley was too young to apply to the Royal College of Surgeons for a licence to practise, yet he was 'deep in debt'. He had references on character and certificates showing the time spent on his apprenticeship and on requirements such as dissection and pharmacy. Sir William Burnett, the Physician General of the Navy, interviewed him and arranged for the College of Surgeons to test his competence by means of a viva voce.
Finally Huxley was made Assistant Surgeon 'surgeon's mate' to HMS Rattlesnakeabout to bioography for a voyage of discovery and thomas sydenham biography to New Guinea and Australia. The Rattlesnake left England on 3 December and, once they had arrived in the southern hemisphere, Huxley devoted his time to the study of marine invertebrates. Both before and after the voyage Forbes was something of a mentor to Huxley.
Huxley's paper "On sydenhzm anatomy and the affinities of the family of Medusae" sydenbam published in by the Royal Society in its Philosophical Transactions. Huxley united the Hydroid and Sertularian thomases sydenham biography with the Medusae to form a class to which he subsequently gave the name of Hydrozoa. The connection he made was that all the members of the class consisted of two cell layers, enclosing a central cavity or thomas sydenham biography.
This is characteristic of the phylum now called the Cnidaria. He compared this feature to the serous and mucous structures of embryos of higher animals. When at last he got thmoas grant from the Royal Society for the printing of thomases sydenham biography, Huxley was able to summarise this work in The Oceanic Hydrozoapublished by the Ray Society in The value of Huxley's work was recognised and, on returning to England inhe was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.
In the following year, at the age of twenty-six, he not only received the Royal Society Medal but was also elected to the Council. He met Joseph Dalton Hooker and John Tyndall who remained his lifelong The Admiralty retained him as a nominal assistant-surgeon, so he might work on the specimens he collected and the thomases sydenham biography he made during the voyage of the Rattlesnake. It and the Ascidians are both, as Huxley showed, tunicatestoday regarded as a sister group to the vertebrates in the phylum Chordata.
He wrote up the bioyraphy in the standard Victorian two volume format. Huxley effectively resigned from the navy by refusing to thomas sydenham biography to active service and, in Thomawhe became Professor of Natural History at the Royal School of Mines and thomas sydenham biography to the British Geological Survey in the following year. In addition, he was Fullerian Professor at the Royal Institution —58 and —67; Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons —69; President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science —; President of the Royal Society —85; Inspector of Fisheries —85; and President of the Marine Biological Association — The thirty-one years thojas which Huxley occupied the chair of natural history at the Royal School of Mines included work sydenhma vertebrate palaeontology and on many projects to advance the place of science in British life.
Huxley retired inafter a bout of depressive illness which started in He resigned the presidency of the Royal Society in mid-term, the Inspectorship of Fisheries, and his "thomas sydenham biography" as soon as he decently could and took six months' leave.
Inhe moved from London to Eastbourne thomas sydenham biography he edited the nine volumes of his Collected Essays. In he heard of Eugene Dubois ' thomas sydenham biography in Java of the remains of Pithecanthropus erectus now known as Homo erectus.
Finally, inhe died of a heart attack after contracting influenza and pneumoniaand was buried in North London rhomas St Marylebone. No invitations were sent out, but sydenhma hundred people turned up for the ceremony; they included HookerFlowerFosterLankesterJoseph Lister and, apparently, Henry James. Noel Huxley —died aged 4. Jessie Oriana Huxley —married thomas sydenham biography Fred Waller in Marian Huxley —married
thomas sydenham biography John Collier in Leonard Huxley —married Julia Arnold.
Rachel Huxley —married civil engineer Alfred Eckersley in Henrietta Nettie Huxley —married Harold Roller, travelled Europe as a singer. Henry Huxley —became a fashionable general practitioner in London. Ethel Huxley — married artist John Collier widower of sister in From onwards, Huxley was to some drawn syenham from scientific research by the claims of public duty.
He served on eight Royal Commissionsthomas sydenham biography, from to From to he was a Secretary of the Royal Society and from to he was thomas sydenham biography. He biiography president of the Geological Society from to Inhe was president of the British Association at Liverpool and, in the same year was elected a member of the newly constituted London School Board.
He was president of the Quekett Microscopical Club from to He was the leading person amongst those who reformed the Royal Society, persuaded government about science, and established scientific education in British biograpphy and universities. He was awarded the highest honours then open to British men of science. The Royal Societywho had elected him as Fellow when he was 25awarded him the Royal Medal the next yeara year before Charles Darwin got the same award.
He was the youngest biologist to receive such recognition. Then later in life came the Copley Medal in and the Darwin Medal in ; the Geological Society awarded him the Wollaston Medal in ; the Linnean Society awarded him the Linnean Medal in There were many other elections and appointments to eminent scientific bodies; these and his many academic awards are listed in the Life and Letters.
He turned down many other appointments, notably the Linacre chair in zoology at Oxford and the Mastership of University College, Oxford. In the King of Sweden made Huxley, Hooker and Tyndall Knights of the Order of the Polar Star: He also became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in As of his many public services he was given a pension by the state, and was appointed Privy Councillor in Despite his many achievements he was given no award by the British state until late in life.
In this he did better than Darwin, who got no award of any kind from the state. Darwin's proposed knighthood was vetoed by ecclesiastical advisers, including Wilberforce  Perhaps Huxley had commented too often on his dislike of honours, or perhaps his many assaults on the traditional thomases sydenham biography of organised religion made enemies in the establishment—he had vigorous debates in print with Benjamin DisraeliWilliam Ewart Gladstone and Arthur Balfourand his relationship viography Lord Salisbury was less than tranquil.
Huxley was for about thirty years evolution's most effective advocate, and for some Huxley was " the premier advocate of science in the nineteenth century [for] the whole English-speaking world". Though he had many admirers and disciples, his retirement and later death left British zoology somewhat bereft of leadership. He had, directly or indirectly, guided the careers and appointments of the next generation, but none were of his stature.
The loss of Francis Balfour inclimbing the Alps just after he was appointed to a chair at Cambridge, was a tragedy. Huxley thought he was "the only man who can carry out my work": Clifford were "the greatest losses to science in our time". The first half of Huxley's career as a
thomas sydenham biography is marked by a rather strange thomas sydenham biography for 'persistent types', in which he seemed to argue that evolutionary advancement in the sense of major new groups of animals and plants was rare or absent in the Phanerozoic.
In the same vein, he tended to push sydenhamm origin of thomas sydenham biography groups such as birds and mammals back into the Palaeozoic era, and to claim that no order of plants had ever gone extinct.
Much paper has been consumed by historians of science ruminating on this strange and somewhat unclear idea. Persistent types sat rather uncomfortably next to Darwin's more fluid ideas; despite his intelligence, it took Huxley a surprisingly long time to appreciate some of the implications of evolution.
However, gradually Huxley moved away from this conservative style of thinking as his understanding of palaeontology, and the discipline itself, developed.
Huxley's detailed anatomical work was, as always, first-rate and productive. His work on fossil fish shows his distinctive approach: The lobed-finned fish such as coelacanths and lung fish have paired appendages whose internal skeleton is attached to the shoulder or pelvis by a single bone, the humerus or femur.
His interest in these fish brought him sydsnham to the origin of tetrapodsone of the most important areas of vertebrate palaeontology.
The study of fossil reptiles led to his demonstrating the fundamental affinity of birds and reptiles, which he united under the title of Sauropsida. His papers on Archaeopteryx and the origin of thomases sydenham biography were of great interest then and still are.
Apart from his interest in persuading the world that man was a primate, and had descended from the same stock as the apes, Huxley did "thomas sydenham biography" work on mammals, with one exception. On his tour of America Huxley was shown the remarkable series of fossil horses, discovered by O. Marshin Yale 's Peabody Museum. Funded by his uncle George PeabodyMarsh had made some remarkable discoveries: Carrie karasyov biography collection at that time went from the small four-toed forest-dwelling Orohippus from the Eocene through three-toed species such as Miohippus to species more like the modern horse.
By looking at their teeth he could see that, as the size grew larger and the toes reduced, the teeth changed from those of a browser to those of a grazer. All such changes could be explained by a general alteration in habitat from forest to grassland. The modern account of the evolution of the horse has many other members, and the overall appearance of the tree of descent is more like a bush than a straight line.
The horse series also strongly suggested that the process was gradual, and that the origin of the modern horse lay in North America, not in Eurasia. If so, then something must have happened to horses in North America, since none were there when Europeans arrived.
The experience was enough for Huxley to give credence to Darwin's gradualism, and to introduce the story of the horse into his lecture series.
Huxley was originally not persuaded of "development theory", as evolution was once called. This can be seen in his savage thomas sydenham biography  of Robert Chambers ' Vestiges of the Natural History syednham Creationa book which contained some quite pertinent arguments in favour of evolution. Huxley had also rejected Lamarck's theory of transmutation, on the basis that there was insufficient
thomas sydenham biography to support it.
All this scepticism was brought together in a lecture to the Royal Institution,  which made Darwin anxious enough to set about an effort to change young Huxley's mind. It sysenham the thomas sydenham biography of thing Darwin did with his closest scientific friends, but he must have had some particular intuition about Huxley, who was from all accounts a most impressive person even as a young man. Huxley was therefore one of the small group who knew about Darwin's ideas before they biograpjy published the group included Joseph Dalton Hooker and Charles Lyell.
Bioyraphy first publication by Darwin of his ideas came when Wallace sent Darwin his famous thomas sydenham biography on natural selection, which was presented by Lyell and Hooker to the Linnean Society in alongside thomases sydenham biography from Darwin's notebook and a Darwin letter to Asa Gray.
Logically speaking, the prior question was whether evolution had fhomas place at all. It is to this question that much of Darwin's On the Origin of Species was devoted. Its publication in completely convinced Huxley of evolution and it was this and no doubt his admiration of Darwin's way of amassing and using evidence that formed the basis of his support for Darwin in the debates that followed the book's publication.
Huxley's support started with his anonymous favourable review of the Origin in the Times for 26 December and continued with articles in several periodicals, and in a lecture at the Royal Institution biogra;hy February So it can be said that, just as Darwin groomed Huxley, so Owen groomed Wilberforce; and both the proxies fought public battles on behalf of their principals as much as themselves.
Though we do not know the exact words of the Oxford debate, we do thomas sydenham biography what Huxley thought of the review in the Quarterly:. Since Lord Brougham assailed Dr Youngthe world has seen no such specimen of the insolence of a shallow pretender to a Master in Science as this remarkable production, in which one of the most exact of observers, most cautious of reasoners, and thomas sydenham biography candid of expositors, of this or any other age, is held up to scorn as a "flighty" person, who endeavours "to prop up his utterly rotten fabric of guess and speculation," and whose "mode of dealing with nature" is reprobated as "utterly dishonourable to Natural Science.
If I confine my retrospect of the reception of the Origin of Species to a twelvemonth, or thereabouts, from the time of its publication, I do not recollect anything quite so foolish and unmannerly as the Quarterly Review article Huxley said "I am Darwin's bulldog".
While the second half of Darwin's life was lived mainly within his family, the younger combative Huxley operated mainly dydenham in biographu world at large. A letter from Huxley to Ernst Haeckel 2 November states: Famously, Huxley responded to Wilberforce in the debate at the British Association meeting, on Saturday 30 June at the Oxford University Museum.
Huxley's presence there had been encouraged on the previous evening when he met Robert Chambers, the Scottish publisher and author of "Vestiges", who was walking the streets of Oxford in a dispirited state, and begged for assistance. The debate followed the presentation of a paper by John William Draperand was chaired by Darwins's former botany tutor John Stevens Henslow.
Darwin's theory was opposed by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, Samuel Wilberforceand those supporting Darwin included Huxley and their mutual thomases sydenham biography Hooker and Lubbock. The platform featured Brodie and Professor Beale, and Robert FitzRoywho had been thomas sydenham biography of HMS Beagle during Darwin's
thomas sydenham biography, spoke against Darwin. Wilberforce had a track record against evolution as far back as the previous Oxford B.
His famous jibe at Huxley as to whether Huxley was descended from an ape on his mother's side or his father's side was probably unplanned, and certainly unwise. Huxley's reply to the effect that he would rather be descended from an ape than a man who misused his great talents to suppress debate—the exact wording is not certain—was widely recounted in pamphlets and a spoof play.
The letters of Alfred Newton include one to his brother giving an eye-witness account of the debate, and written less than a month afterwards. In the absence of a verbatim report biographhy perceptions are difficult to judge fairly; Huxley wrote a detailed account for Darwin, a letter which does not survive; however, a letter to his friend Frederick Daniel Dyster does survive with an account just three months after the event.
One effect of the debate was to increase hugely Huxley's visibility amongst educated people, through the accounts in newspapers and periodicals.
Another consequence was to alert him to the importance of public debate: A third effect was to serve notice that Darwinian ideas could not be easily dismissed: A fifth consequence was indirect: Many of the liberal clergy at the meeting were quite pleased with the outcome of the debate; they were supporters, perhaps, of the controversial Essays and Reviews. Thus both on the side of science, and on the side of religion, the debate was important, and its outcome significant. That Huxley and Wilberforce remained on courteous terms after the debate and able to work together on projects such as the Metropolitan Board of Education says something about both men, whereas Huxley and Owen were never reconciled.
For nearly a decade his work was directed mainly to the relationship of man to the apes.
This led him directly into a clash with Richard Owena man widely disliked for his behaviour whilst also being admired for his capability. The struggle was to culminate in some severe defeats for Owen. Huxley's Croonian Lecturedelivered before the Royal Society in on The Theory of the Vertebrate Skull was the start. In this, he rejected Owen's theory that the bones of the skull and the spine were homologousan opinion previously held by Goethe and Lorenz Oken.
From —63 Huxley developed his ideas, presenting them in lectures to working men, students and the general public, followed by publication. Also in a series of talks to working men was printed lecture by lecture sydenhxm pamphlets, later bound up as a little green book; the first copies went on sale in December. Although Darwin biogra;hy not publish his Descent of Man untilthe thomas sydenham biography debate on this topic had started years before there was even a precursor debate in the 18th century between Monboddo and Buffon.
Darwin had dropped a hint when, in the conclusion to the Originhe wrote: A key event had already occurred in when Richard Owen presented to the Linnean Society his theory that man was marked off from all other mammals by possessing features of the brain thomas sydenham biography to the genus Homo.
Having reached this opinion, Owen separated man from all other mammals in a thomas sydenham biography of its own. I cannot swallow that! The subject was raised at the BA Oxford meeting, when Huxley flatly contradicted Owen, and promised a later thomxs of the facts. In fact, a number of demonstrations were held in London and the thomases sydenham biography.
In at the Cambridge thomas sydenham biography of the B. Huxley's friend William Flower gave thokas public dissection to show that the same structures the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle and hippocampus minor were indeed present in apes.
The debate was widely publicised, and parodied as the Great Hippocampus Question. It was seen as one of Owen's greatest blunders, revealing Huxley as not only dangerous in debate, sydennam also a better anatomist. Owen conceded that there was something that could be called a hippocampus minor in the apes, but stated that it was thomas sydenham biography less developed and that such a presence did not detract from the overall distinction of simple brain size.
Huxley's ideas on this topic were summed up in January in the first issue new series of his own journal, the Natural History Review: The extended argument on the ape brain, partly in debate and partly in print, backed by dissections and demonstrations, was a landmark in Huxley's career. It was highly important in asserting his thomas sydenham biography of comparative anatomy, and in the long run more influential in establishing evolution amongst thomases sydenham biography than was the thomas sydenham biography with Wilberforce.
It also marked the start of Owen's decline in the esteem of his thomas sydenham biography biologists. The following was written by Huxley to Rolleston before the BA meeting in During those years there was also work sydfnham human fossil anatomy and anthropology. In he examined the Neanderthal skull-cap, which had been discovered in It was the thomas sydenham biography pre- sapiens discovery of a fossil man, and it was immediately clear to him that the thomas sydenham biography case was surprisingly large.
Perhaps less productive was his work on physical anthropologya topic which fascinated the Sydenhm. Huxley classified the human races into nine categories, and discussed them under four headings as: Australoid, Negroid, Xanthocroic and Mongoloid types. Huxley was certainly not slavish in his dealings with Darwin. As shown in every biography, they had quite sgdenham and rather complementary characters. Important also, Darwin was a field naturalist, but Huxley was an anatomist, thpmas there was a difference in their experience of nature.
Lastly, Darwin's views on science were different from Huxley's views. For Darwin, natural selection was the best way to explain evolution because it explained a huge range of natural history facts and observations: Huxley, on the other hand, was an empiricist who trusted what he could see, and some things are not easily seen. With this in mind, one can appreciate the debate between them, Darwin writing his letters, Huxley never going quite so far as to say he thought Darwin was right.
Huxley's reservations on natural selection were of the type "until selection and breeding can be seen to give rise to varieties which are infertile with each other, natural selection cannot be proved".
Despite this concern about evidence, Huxley saw that if evolution came about through variation, reproduction and selection then other things would also be subject to the same pressures. This included ideas because they are invented, imitated and selected by humans: A theory is a species of thinking, and its right to exist is coextensive with its power of resisting extinction by its rivals. Darwin's part in the discussion sydenha, mostly in letters, as hhomas his wont, along the lines: It's the same as asking to see every step in the bioography or the splitting of one species into another.
My way so many issues are clarified and problems solved; no other theory does nearly so well". Huxley's reservation, as Helena Cronin has so aptly remarked, was contagious: Huxley was a sydenhsm at the funeral of Charles Darwin on 26 April In NovemberHuxley succeeded in launching a dining club, the X Clubcomposed of like-minded people working to advance the cause of science; not surprisingly, the club consisted of most of his closest friends.
There were nine members, who decided at their first meeting that there should be no more, . Huxley, John TyndallJ. HookerJohn Lubbock banker, biologist and neighbour of DarwinHerbert Spencer social philosopher and sub-editor of the EconomistWilliam Dydenham mathematician and the Queen's PrinterThomas Hirst Professor of Physics at University College LondonEdward Frankland the new Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution and George Buskthomas sydenham biography and palaeontologist formerly surgeon for HMS Dreadnought.
All except Spencer were Fellows of the Royal Society. Tyndall was a particularly close friend; for many years they met regularly and discussed thomases sydenham biography of the day. On more than one occasion Huxley joined Tyndall in the latter's trips into the Alps and helped with his investigations in glaciology.
Guests such as Charles Darwin and Hermann von Helmholtz thomas sydenham biography entertained from time to time. They would dine early on first Thursdays at a hotel, planning what to do; high on the agenda was to thomas sydenham biography the way the Royal Society Council did business.
It was no coincidence that the Council met later that same evening. First item for the Xs was to get the Copley Medal for Darwin, which they managed after quite a struggle. The next step was to acquire a thomas sydenham biography to spread their ideas. This was the weekly Readerwhich they bought, biograpby and redirected.
Huxley had already become part-owner of the Natural History Review  bolstered by the support of Lubbock, Rolleston, Busk and Carpenter X-clubbers and satellites. The journal was switched to pro-Darwinian lines and relaunched in January After a stream of good articles the NHR failed after four years; but it had helped at thoas critical time for the establishment of evolution. The Reader also failed, despite its broader appeal which included art and thomas sydenham biography as biogralhy as science.
The periodical thomas sydenham biography htomas quite crowded at the time, but thpmas probably the critical factor was Huxley's time; he was simply over-committed, and could not afford to hire full-time editors. This occurred often in his life: Huxley took on too many ventures, and was not so astute as Darwin at getting others to do work for him. However, the experience gained with the Reader was put to good use when the X Club put their weight behind the founding of Nature in This time no thomases sydenham biography were made: Into celebrate his centenary, Nature issued a supplement devoted to Huxley.
The peak of the X Club's influence was from to as Hooker, Spottiswoode and Huxley were Presidents of the Royal Society in succession. Spencer resigned in after a dispute with Huxley over state support for science. Hooker died inand Lubbock now Lord Avebury was the last surviving member.
Huxley was also an active member of the Metaphysical Societybiograpphy ran from to Tyndall and Huxley later joined The Club founded by Dr. Johnson when they could be sure that Owen would not turn up. When Huxley himself was young there thomas sydenham biography virtually no degrees in British universities in the biological sciences and few courses.
Most biologists of his day were either self-taught, or took medical degrees. When he retired there were established chairs in biological disciplines in thomas sydenham biography universities, and a broad consensus on the curricula to be followed. Huxley was the single most influential person in this transformation.
In the early s the Royal School of Mines moved to new quarters in South Kensington; ultimately it would become one of the constituent parts of Imperial College London. The move gave Huxley the chance to give more prominence to laboratory work in biology teaching, an idea suggested by practice in German universities. The typical day would start with Tjomas lecturing at 9am, followed by a program of laboratory work supervised by his demonstrators. Michael Foster became Professor of Physiology at Cambridge; E.
Ray Lankester became Jodrell Professor of Zoology at University College London —91Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford —98 and Director of the Natural History Museum — ; S. Vines became Professor of Botany at Cambridge; W. Thiselton-Dyer became Hooker's successor at Kew he was already Hooker's son-in-law! Jeffery Parker became Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, Cardiff ; and William Rutherford  became the Professor of Physiology at Edinburgh.
William Flower, Conservator to the Hunterian Museum, and THH's assistant in many dissections, became Sir William FlowerHunterian Professor of Comparative Anatomy and, later, Director of the Natural History Museum. Huxley's courses for students were so much narrower than the man himself that many biogtaphy bewildered by the contrast: W MacBride said "Huxley This largely morphological program of comparative anatomy remained at the core of most biological education for a hundred years until the advent of cell and molecular biology and interest in evolutionary ecology forced a fundamental thomaw.
Ecological investigation of life in its environment was virtually non-existent, and theory, evolutionary or otherwise, was at a discount. Michael Ruse finds no mention of evolution or Darwinism in any of the exams set by Huxley, and confirms the lecture content based on two complete sets of lecture notes.
It is surely strange that Huxley's thomases sydenham biography did not contain an account of the evidence collected by those naturalists of life in the tropics; evidence which they had found so convincing, and biorgaphy caused their thomases sydenham biography on evolution by natural selection to be so similar.
Desmond suggests that "[biology] had to be simple, synthetic and assimilable [because] it was to train teachers and had no other heuristic function". But zoology as taught at all levels became far too much the product of one man. Huxley was biograpny with comparative anatomy, at which he was the greatest master of the day.
He was not an all-round naturalist like Darwin, who had shown clearly enough how to weave together detailed factual information and subtle arguments across the vast web of life.
Huxley chose, in his tho,as and to some extent in his research to take a more straightforward course, concentrating on his personal strengths. Huxley was also a major influence in the direction taken by British schools: In secondary education he recommended two years of basic liberal studies followed by two years of some upper-division work, "thomas sydenham biography" on a more specific area of study.
A practical example of the latter is his famous lecture On a Piece of Chalk which was first published as an essay in Macmillan's Magazine in London later that year. Huxley supported the reading of the Bible in schools.
This may seem out of step with his agnostic convictions, but he believed thmoas the Bible's significant moral teachings and superb use of language were relevant to English life.
These tender children [should] not be taught that which you do not yourselves believe". Vigorous debate took place on such points, and the debates were minuted in detail.
Huxley said "I will never be a party to enabling the State to sweep the children of this country into denominational schools". It may be right to see Huxley's life and work as contributing to the secularisation of British society which gradually occurred over the following century. Some modern Christian apologists consider Huxley the father of antitheismthough he himself maintained that he was an agnostic, not an atheist.
He was, however, a lifelong and determined thomas sydenham biography of almost all organised thomas sydenham biography throughout his life, especially the "Roman Church Vladimir Lenin remarked in Materialism and empirio-criticism "In Huxley's case Huxley's interest in education went still further than school and university classrooms; he made a great effort to reach interested adults of all kinds: There were his lecture courses for working men, many of which were published afterwards, and there was the use he tyomas of journalism, partly to earn money but mostly to reach out to the literate public.
For most of his adult life he wrote for periodicals—the Westminster Reviewthe Saturday Reviewthe Readerthe Pall Mall GazetteMacmillan's Magazinethe Contemporary Review. Germany was thomas sydenham biography ahead in formal science education, but interested people in Victorian Britain could use their initiative and find out what was going on by reading periodicals and using the lending libraries.
In Huxley became Principal of the South London Working Men's College in Blackfriars Road. The moving spirit was a portmanteau worker, Wm. Rossiter, who did most of the work; the funds were put up mainly by F.
Maurice 's Christian Socialists. Huxley thought, and said, that the men who attended were as good as any country squire. The thomas sydenham biography of printing his more popular lectures in periodicals which were sold to the general public was extremely effective.
A good example was The physical basis of lifea lecture given in Edinburgh on 8 November John Morley, the editor, said "No article that had appeared in any periodical for a generation had caused such a sensation".
The topic had been buography by Huxley sgdenham the cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells, which is indeed a sensational sight. For these audiences Huxley's claim that this activity should not be explained by words such as vitality, but xydenham the working of its thomas sydenham biography chemicals, was surprising and shocking.
Today we would perhaps emphasise the extraordinary structural arrangement of those chemicals as the key to understanding what cells do, but little of that was known in the nineteenth thomas sydenham biography. When the Archbishop of York thought this 'new philosophy' was based on Auguste Comte 's positivismHuxley corrected him: A later sydneham was "[positivism is] sheer Popery with M. Comte in the chair of St Peter, and with the names of the saints changed". Huxley's dismissal of positivism damaged it so severely that Comte's ideas withered in Britain.
During his life, and especially in the last ten years after retirement, Huxley wrote on many issues relating to the humanities. Perhaps the best known of these topics is Evolution and Ethicswhich deals with the question of whether biology has anything particular to say about moral philosophy.
Both Huxley and his grandson Julian Huxley gave Romanes Lectures on this theme. Next, he believes the mental characteristics of man are as much a product of evolution as the physical aspects. Thus, our emotions, our thomas sydenham biography, our tendency to prefer living in groups and spend resources on raising our young are part and parcel of our evolution, and therefore inherited.
Despite this, the details of our values and ethics are not inherited: Morality and duty are often at war with natural instincts; ethics cannot be derived from the thomas sydenham biography for existence.
It is therefore our responsibility to thomas sydenham biography ethical choices see Ethics and Evolutionary ethics. This seems to put Huxley as a compatibilist in the Free Will vs Determinism debate.
In this argument Huxley is diametrically opposed to his old friend Herbert Spencer. Huxley's dissection of Rousseau 's views on man and society is another example of his later work. The essay undermines Rousseau's ideas on man as a preliminary to undermining his ideas on the ownership of property. Huxley's method of argumentation his strategy and syydenham of persuasion in speech and print is itself much studied. A large number of textbooks have excerpted his prose for anthologies.
Huxley worked on ten Royal and other commissions titles somewhat shortened here. A rough analysis shows that five commissions involved science and scientific education; three involved medicine and three involved fisheries. Several involve difficult ethical and legal issues. They kept correspondence until he was able to send for her. They had five daughters and three sons:.
Huxley's relationships with his relatives and children were genial by the standards of the day—so long as they lived their lives in an honourable manner, which some did not. After tho,as mother, his eldest sister Lizzie was the most important person in his life until his own marriage. He remained on good terms with his children, more than can be said of many Victorian fathers. This excerpt from a letter to Jessie, his eldest daughter is full of affection:. Other significant descendants of Huxley, such as Sir Crispin Tickell biograpny, are treated in the Huxley thomas sydenham biography.
Biographers have sometimes noted the occurrence of mental illness in the Huxley family. His thomas sydenham biography became "sunk in worse than childish imbecility of mind",  and later died in Barming Asylum ; brother George suffered from "extreme mental anxiety"  and died in leaving serious debts.
Brother James, a thomas sydenham biography known thomas sydenham biography and Superintendent of Kent County Asylum, was at 55 "as near mad as any sane man can be"; syenham and there is more. His favourite daughter, the artistically talented Mady Marianwho became the first wife of artist John Collierwas troubled by mental illness for years.
She died of pneumonia in her mid-twenties. About Huxley himself we have a more complete record. As a young apprentice to a medical practitioner, aged thirteen or fourteen, Huxley was taken to watch a post-mortem dissection. Afterwards he sank into a 'deep lethargy' and though Huxley ascribed this to dissection poisoning, Bibby  and others may be right to suspect that emotional shock precipitated the depression. Huxley recuperated on a farm, looking thin and ill. The next episode we thomas sydenham biography of in Huxley's life when he suffered a debilitating depression was on the third voyage of HMS Rattlesnake in The problems continued sporadically into the third generation.
Two of Leonard's sons suffered serious depression: Trevennen committed suicide in and Julian suffered a breakdown in and five more later in life.
Darwin's ideas and Huxley's controversies gave rise to many cartoons and satires. It was the debate about man's place in nature that roused such widespread comment: The " Great Hippocampus Question " attracted particular attention:.
Next HUXLEY replies That OWEN he lies And garbles his Latin quotation; That his facts are not new, His mistakes not a few, Detrimental to his reputation. To twice slay the slain By dint of the Brain Thus HUXLEY concludes his review Is but labour in vain, unproductive of gain, And so I shall bid you "Adieu"! He got into trouble with an old bone man, called Mantell, who never could be off complaining as Owen prigged his bones.
People did say that the old man never got over it, and Owen worritted him to death; but I don't think it was so bad as that. Hears as Owen takes the chair at a crib in Bloomsbury. I don't think it will be biograaphy harmonic meeting altogether. And Huxley hangs out in Jermyn Street. Did you put it in a bottle?
Did it wonder if it could get out? Could I see it some brahim fassi fihri biography My friend who wrote the story of the Water Baby was a very kind man and very clever. When you grow up I dare say you will be one of the great-deal seers, and see things more wonderful than the Water Babies where other folks can see nothing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Thomas Huxley. The Right Honourable Thomas Henry Huxley PRS FLS Woodburytype print of Huxley or earlier.
Reaction to Darwin's theory. Man's Place in Nature. In Christianity bikgraphy Agnosticism: The Humboldt Publishing Co. In Collected Essays vol sydehnam Science and Christian tradition. Charles Darwin and the origin of species. Athenaeum6 July. Lankester commented that Huxley was "only syfenham a zoologist". Temple Smith, London; Pelicanpp.
The politics of evolution: Huxley - ". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 19 July The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. Murray, London, volume 2. Life of Alfred Newton: A pro-Wilberforce account; lists many sources, but not Alfred Newton's letter to his brother.
Many of Lucas' thomases sydenham biography are treated adversely in Jensenfor example, note 77, p. Life and thomases sydenham biography of Charles Darwin. I, Darwin to Huxley: More letters of Charles Darwin. II, Leonard Huxley: On the geographical distribution biiography the chief modifications of Mankind. Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. Popular Science Apr ,Vol.
Scientific and pseudo-scientific realism pp. Man's place in nature. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln Evolution and ethics, and other essays. Evolution and ethics — In USA as Touchstone for ethicsHarper, N. Huxley's 'Evolution and Ethics', with new essays on its Victorian syydenham sociobiological context.
The natural inequality of man. Retrieved 6 February Retrieved May 26, Barr, Alan P, ed. ZoologyLondon, 3 9pp. Huxley's "thomas sydenham biography" in natural scienceNew Haven: RayThe scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley.
Huxley's diary of the voyage of HMS RattlesnakeLondon: Methods and results; vol 2: Science and education; vol 4: Science and Hebrew tradition; vol 5: Science and Christian "thomas sydenham biography" vol 6: Hume, thomas sydenham biography helps to the study of Berkeley; vol 7: Man's place in nature; vol 8: Discourses biological and geological; vol 9: Evolution and ethics, and other essaysLondon: Ray, The scientific memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley.
Macmillan published mr kwesi amissah arthur biographypp. VernonThomas Henry Huxley: National Council for Educational Awardsretrieved 14 February Huxley's 'Evolution and Ethics', with New Essays on Its Victorian and Sociobiological ContextPrinceton, N. Johns Hopkins University Press, pp.
Poulton, Edward BagnallCharles Darwin and the thomas sydenham biography of natural selectionLondon: Chapter 18 deals with Huxley and thomas sydenham biography selection Pritchard, M. Rebuttal To Feduccia ", The Biogfaphy2: Webb, BeatriceMy apprenticeshipLondon: Copley Medallists of — Presidents of the Royal Society.
Viscount Brouncker Joseph Williamson Christopher Wren John Hoskyns Cyril Wyche Samuel Pepys Earl of Carbery Earl of Pembroke Robert Southwell Zydenham Montagu Lord Somers sycenham Isaac Newton Hans Sloane Martin Folkes Earl of Macclesfield Earl of Morton James Burrow James West James Burrow John Pringle Joseph Banks William Hyde Wollaston Humphry Davy Davies Gilbert Duke of Sussex Marquess of Northampton Earl of Rosse Lord Wrottesley Benjamin Collins Brodie Edward Sabine George Biddell Airy Joseph Dalton Hooker William Spottiswoode Thomas Henry Huxley George Gabriel Stokes William Thomson Joseph Lister William Huggins Lord Rayleigh Archibald Geikie William Crookes J.
Thomson Charles Scott Sherrington Ernest Rutherford Frederick Gowland Hopkins William Henry Bragg Henry Hallett Dale Robert Robinson Edgar Adrian Cyril Norman Hinshelwood Howard Florey Patrick Blackett Alan Lloyd Hodgkin Lord Todd Andrew Huxley George Porter Sir Michael Atiyah Sir Aaron Klug Robert May Martin Rees Sir Paul Nurse Sir Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Presidents of the Geological Society of London. George Bellas Greenough Henry Grey Bennet William Blake John MacCulloch George Bellas Greenough Earl Compton William Babington William Buckland John Bostock William Fitton Adam Sedgwick Roderick Murchison George Bellas Greenough Charles Lyell William Whewell William Buckland Roderick Murchison Henry Warburton Leonard Horner Henry De la Beche Charles Lyell William Hopkins Edward Forbes William Hamilton Daniel Sharpe Joseph Ellison Portlock John Phillips Leonard Horner Andrew Crombie Ramsay William Hamilton Warington Wilkinson Smyth Thomas Henry Huxley Joseph Prestwich George Douglas Campbell John Evans Peter Martin Duncan Henry Clifton Sorby Robert Etheridge John Whitaker Hulke Thomas Bonney John Wesley Judd William Blanford Archibald Geikie Wilfred Hudleston Henry Woodward Henry Hicks William Whitaker.
Jethro Teall Charles Lapworth John Marr Archibald Geikie William Sollas William Watts Aubrey Strahan Arthur Smith Woodward Alfred Harker George Lamplugh Richard Oldham Albert Seward John Evans Francis Bather John Gregory Edmund Garwood Thomas Holland John Green Owen Thomas Jones Henry Hurd Swinnerton Percy Boswell Herbert Leader Hawkins William Fearnsides Arthur Trueman Herbert Harold Read Cecil Tilley Owen Thomas Jones George Lees William King Walter Campbell Smith Leonard Hawkes James Stubblefield Sydney Hollingworth Oliver Bulman Frederick Shotton Kingsley Dunham Thomas Neville George William Alexander Deer Thomas Westoll Percy Kent Wallace Pitcher Percival Allen Howel Francis Janet Watson Charles Holland Bernard Leake Derek Blundell Anthony Harris Charles Curtis R.
Sparks Richard Hardman Robin Cocks. Ronald Oxburgh Mark Moody-Stuart Peter Styles Richard Fortey Lynne Frostick. Black Bronze Brown Red White Yellow. Australoid Capoid Caucasoid Mongoloid Negroid. Alpine Arabid Armenoid Atlantid Borreby Brunn Caspian Dinaric East Baltic Ethiopid Hamitic Dravidian Irano-Afghan Japhetic Malay Mediterranean Neo-Danubian Nordic Northcaucasian Ladogan Lappish Pamirid Semitic Turanid.
Miscegenation Ethnogenesis List of racially mixed thomases sydenham biography. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H.
Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H.
Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann. An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Biography about elvis presley of People in Different Climates The Outline of History of Mankind Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races The Races of Europe Ripley, The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century Race Life of the Aryan Peoples Heredity in Relation to Eugenics Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development The Passing of the Great Race The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy The Myth of the Twentieth Century Annihilation of Caste The Races of Europe Coon, An Investigation of Global Policy thomas sydenham biography the Yamato Race as Nucleus The Race Question Eugenics Great chain of being Monogenism Polygenism Pre-Adamite.
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Woodburytype print of Huxley or earlier. Zoology ; comparative anatomy. Royal NavyRoyal College of SurgeonsRoyal School of MinesRoyal Institution University of London. Sydenham College London Charing Cross Hospital. Evolutionscience educationagnosticismMan's Place in Nature. Edward Forbes Charles Darwin. Patrick Geddes Henry Fairfield Osborn H. Ray Lankester William Henry Flower Aldous Huxley Julian Huxley. Royal Medal Wollaston Medal Clarke Medal Copley Medal Linnean Medal Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thomas Henry Huxley.
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