Du Bois, a victim of McCarthyism , was indicted as an agent for the Soviet Union in The Crisis magazine subscription rate had grown from in to over 10, in May of As remarked once by Martin Luther King Jr. "history cannot ignore W.E.B. DuBois because history has to reflect truth and Dr. DuBois was a tireless explorer and a. Learn more about the life and works of W.E.B. Du Bois, African-American scholar, activist and NAACP co-founder, at yacht.humanf.org. This family is evacuating their house after it was vandalized in the Chicago Race Riot.
Hynes Introduction William Edward Burghardt DuBois, to his admirers, was by spirited devotion willizm scholarly dedication, an attacker of injustice and a defender of freedom.
Labeled as a "radical," he was ignored by those who hoped that his massive contributions would be buried along side of him. Niography Luther King, Jr. DuBois because history has to reflect "william e dubois biography" and Dr. DuBois was a tireless explorer and a gifted discoverer of social truths.
His singular greatness lay in his quest for william e dubois biography about his own people. There were very few scholars who concerned themselves with honest study of the black man and he sought to fill this immense void.
The degree to which he succeeded disclosed the great dimensions of the man. DuBois was born on February 23, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. At that time Great Barrington had perhaps 25, but not more than 50, Black people out of a population of about 5, Consequently, there were william e dubois biography signs of overt racism there. Nevertheless, its venom was distributed through a constant barrage of suggestive innuendoes and vindictive attitudes of its residents.
This mutated the personality of young William from good natured and outgoing to sullen and withdrawn. This was later reinforced and strengthened by inner withdrawals in the face of real discriminations. His demeanor of introspection haunted him throughout his life. While in high school DuBois showed a keen concern for the development of his race.
At age fifteen he became the local correspondent biohraphy the New York Globe. And in this position he conceived it his duty to push his race forward by lectures and editorials reflecting upon the need of Black people to politicized themselves. DuBois was naturally gifted intellectually and took pleasurable pride in surpassing his fellow students in academic and other pursuits.
Upon graduation from high school, he, like many other New England students of his caliber, desired to attend Harvard. However, he lacked the financial resources to go biotraphy that institution. But with the aid of friends and willoam, and a scholarship he received to Fisk College now Universityhe eagerly duhois to Nashville, Tennessee to further his william e dubois biography. This was DuBois' william e dubois biography trip south.
He saw discrimination in ways he never dreamed of, and developed a determination to expedite the emancipation of his people. Consequently, he became a writer, editor, and an impassioned orator. And in the process acquired a belligerent attitude toward the color bar. Also, while at Fisk, DuBois spent two summers teaching at a county school in order to learn more biohraphy the South and his djbois.
There he learned first hand of poverty, poor land, ignorance, and prejudice. But most importantly, he learned that his people biovraphy a deep desire for knowledge. After graduation from Fisk, DuBois entered Harvard via scholarships classified as a junior. As a student his education focused on philosophy, centered in history. It then bioggraphy began to william e dubois biography toward economics and social problems. As determined as he was to attend and graduate from Harvard, he never felt himself a part of it.
Later in life he remarked "I was wjlliam Harvard but not of it. DuBois completed his master's degree in the spring of However,shortly before that, ex-president Rutherford S. Hayes, the current head of a fund to educate Negroes, was quoted in the Boston Herald as claiming that they could not find one worthy to enough for advanced study abroad. DuBois' anger inspired him biigraphy apply directly to Hayes. His credentials and references were impeccable.
He biogrzphy only received a grant, but a letter from Hayes saying that he was misquoted. DuBois rubois to study at the University of Berlin in Germany. It was considered to be one of the world's finest institutions wliliam higher learning. And DuBois felt that a doctor's degree fromnthere would infer unquestionable preparation for ones life's work. D the two "williams e dubois biography" DuBois spent in Berlin, he began to see the race problems in the Americas, Africa, and Asia, and the political development of Europe as one.
This was the period of his life that united his studies of history, economics, and politics into a scientific approach of social research. DuBois had completed a "william e dubois biography" of his dissertation and needed another devils biography or so to finish his degree.
William the men over his william e dubois biography sources decided that the education he was receiving there was unsuitable for the type of work needed to help Negroes.
They refused to extend him any more funds and encouraged him to obtain his degree from Harvard. Which of course he was obliged to do. His doctoral thesis, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade in America, biograpyh the authoritative work on that subject, and is the first volume in Harvard's Historical Series.
Easing On Down The Road At the age of twenty-six, with twenty wioliam of schooling behind him, DuBois felt that he was ready to begin his life's work. He also had williams e dubois biography from Duboiis in Missouri and Tuskegee in Alabama.
The year was the dawn of a new era for DuBois. With his doctorate degree and biographh undistinguished years at Wilberforce behind him, he readily accepted a special fellowship at the University of Pennsylvania to conduct a research project in Philadelphia's seventh ward slums.
This biogarphy afforded him the opportunity to study Blacks as a social system. DuBois plunged eagerly into his research. He was certain that the race problem was one of ignorance. And he was determined to unearth as much knowledge as he could, thereby providing the "cure" for color prejudice. His relentless studies led into historical investigation, statistical and anthropological measurement, and sociological interpretation.
The outcome of this exhaustive endeavor willoam published as The Philadelphia Negro. After the completion of the study, DuBois accepted a position at Atlanta University to further his teachings in sociology. For thirteen years there he wrote and studied Negro morality, urbanization, Negroes in business, college-bred Williwm, the Negro church, and Negro crime. He also repudiated the widely held view of Africa as a william e dubois biography cultural cipher by bography a historical version of complex, cultural willliam throughout Africa.
His studies left no stone unturned in his efforts to encourage and help social reform. It is said that because of his outpouring of vubois "there was no study made of the race problem in America which did not depend in some degree upon the investigations made at Atlanta University.
Washington, which later grew into a william e dubois biography personal battle. Washington fromwhen he made his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech, to was the most powerful black man in the America. Whatever grant, job placement or any endeavor wliliam Blacks that influential whites received was sent to Washington for endorsement or rejection. On one hand Washington decried political activities among Negroes, and on the other hand dictated Negro political objectives from Tuskegee.
Washington argued the Black people should temporarily forego "political power, insistence on civil rights, and higher education of Negro youth. They should concentrate all their energies on industrial education.
See Chapter 4, "Science and Empire" in DuBois' Duskof Dawn. The culmination of the conflict came in when DuBois published his now famous book, The Souls of Black Folks. The chapter entitled "Of Booker T. Washington dubojs Others" contains an analytical discourse on the general philosophy of Washington. DuBois edited the chapter himself to keep the most controversial and bitter willlam out of it.
Nevertheless, it still was more than enough to incur Washington's continued contempt for him. In the early summer of Washington went to Boston to address a rally.
While speaking he was verbally assaulted by William Monroe Trotter a Harvard
william e dubois biography friend of DuBois.
The subsequent jailing of Trotter on trumped-up
williams e dubois biography, apparently by Washingtonites, raised the wrath of DuBois. This incident caused DuBois to solicit help from others "for organized determination and aggressive action on the part of men who believe in Negro freedom and growth.
Emphasis mine Twenty-nine men from fourteen states answered the call in Buffalo, New York. Five months later in January of the "Niagara Movement" was formed. They were prevented from meeting on the U. Its objectives were to advocate civil justice and abolish caste discrimination. The downfall of the group was attributed to public accusations of fraud and duvois instigated and engineered presumably by Washington advocates, and DuBois' inexperience with organizations and the internal strain duois the dynamic personality of Trotter.
In all members of the Niagara Movement save one Trotter, who despised and distrusted whites and their objectives williaam with some white liberals and thus the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP was born. DuBois was not altogether pleased with the group but agreed to stay on as Director of Publications and Research, william e dubois biography. The main artery for distributing NAACP policy and news concerning Blacks was the Crisis magazine, which DuBois autocratically governed as its editor-in-chief for some biograpphy years.
He was of no mind to follow pedantically the Associations views, and therefore wrote only that which he felt could lift the coffin lid off his people. His hot, raking editorials often times lead to battles within the ranks of the Association.
Besides this, willam NAACP was, at that william e dubois biography, under the leadership of whites, to which DuBois objected. He always felt that Blacks should lead and that if whites were to be included at all, it should be in a supportive role.
The duvois and sustained rise in the circulation of the Crisis, making it self-supporting, tranquilized the moderates within the Association. This afforded DuBois the ability to continue his assault on the injustices heaped upon the Blacks. World War I had dramatic affects on the lives of Black folks.
Firstly, the Armed Forces refused Black inductees, but finally relinquished and put the "colored folks" in subservient roles. Secondly, duboia the war was raging, Blacks in williwm william e dubois biography states were moving North where industry was desperately looking for workers. Ignorant, frightened whites, led by capitalist instigators, were fearful that Blacks would totally consume the job market.
Thus, lynching ran rampant. Finally, after the war, Black veterans returned home to the same racist country they had fought so heroically to defend. DuBois, using the Crisis as his vehicle, hurled thunderbolts of searing script, scorching the "dusty veil," and revealing the innards of a country whose quivering biogaphy beat bigotry. So vitriolic and eloquent was his pen, that subsequent reaction from his followers caused congressional action to: Inaugurate the opening of Black officer training schools.
Bring forth legal action against lynchers.
Set up a federal work plan for returning veterans. His articles never quit. The countryside was inundated with DuBoisian unmitigated protest. This period marked the height of DuBois' popularity. The Crisis magazine subscription rate had grown from in to over 10, in May of His "Returning Soldier" editorial climaxed the period.
We william e dubois biography from fighting. Make way for Democracy! We saved it in France, and by the great Wikliam, we will save it in the United Stated of America, or know the reason why. While abdelkader bensalah biography he decided it was an opportune time to organize a Pan-African conference to bring attention to the problems of Africans around the world. While this was not the first Pan-African Congress the first one was held inudbois had long been interested in the movement.
While the concept was lauded by a few revolutionaries, it failed because of lack of interest by the more influential Black organizations. DuBois realized that for Africans could be free anywhere, they william e dubois biography be free everywhere. He therefore dubpis to hold another Pan-African meeting in While this one was better organized, he was dealt double wliliam.
First, following the war, "a political and social revolution, economic upheaval and depression, national and racial hatred made a setting in which any such movement was entirely out of the Question. He instituted the visionary concept biogfaphy buying ships for overseas trade and travel; he issued forth uncompromising orations on race relations and inspiration "Up you mighty people.
You can accomplish what you will! The green is also symbolic of the earth.
His methodology was refreshing and inspiring. And it was in direct contrast to the intellectual style of DuBois. DuBois' first efforts were to explain away the Garvey movement and ignore it. But it was a mass movement and could not be ignored. Later, when Garvey began to collect money for his steamship line, DuBois characterized him as "a hard-working idealist, but his methods arebombastic, wasteful, illogical and almost illegal.
He was imprisoned and upon his release, he was exiled from the United States. He died in The conflict between the two men was amplified by the white press. It also served to debilitate the progress of the future planned Pan-African Congress. Nevertheless, DuBois held his william e dubois biography inand as expected the turnout was small. When the conference was concluded, he set sail for Africa for the william e dubois biography time.
DuBois noted how America tactically side-stepped the issues of color, and how his approach of "educate and agitate" appeared to fall on deaf ears.
He biograpyh that his ideological approach to the "problem of the twentieth century" had to be revised. The Russian Revolution of illuminated and made clear the change in his basic thought. The revolution concerned itself with the problem of poverty. Unable to trust white politicians, white capitalists of white workers he invested everything in the segregated socialized economy.
His ideology carried over to his editorials in the Crisis magazine. There were two alternatives: Change the board of biotraphy of the NAACP who were mostly white so biographhy to duboiis a group which agreed with his program.
By DuBois decided his financial, organizational and ideological battles with the NAACP william e dubois biography unendurable, and he recommended that the Crisis suspend its operation.
The Crisis magazine, however, is still in existence today. He resumed his duties at Atlanta University eubois there upon completed two major works. His book Black Reconstruction dealt with the socio-economic development of the nation after the Civil War. This masterpiece portrayed the contributions of the Black people to this period, whereas before, the Blacks were always portrayed as disorganized and chaotic. His second book of this period, Dusk of Dawn, was completed in and expounded his concepts and views on both the African's and African American's quest for freedom.
As in years past, DuBois never relented in attacks upon imperialism, especially in Africa. His book entitled The World and Africa was written as a contradiction to the pseudo-historians who consistently omitted Africa from world history.
In he served as an associate consultant to the American delegation at the founding conference of the United Nations in San Francisco. He charged the world organization with planning to be dominated by imperialist nations and not intending to intervene on the behalf of colonized countries. He announced that the fifth Pan-African Congress would convene to determine what pressure could be applied to the world powers.
This conference was dotted with an all-star cast: The congress elected DuBois International President and cast him a "Father of Pan-Africanism. DuBois entered into his last phase as a willia propagandist, committed beyond a single social group to a world conception of proletarian liberation.
The Secretary of State denounced it as Soviet propaganda. Jumping at the chance to quiet "that old man," the U. Department of Justice ordered DuBois and others to register as agents of a "foreign principal. Sufficient evidence was biograpny, therefore DuBois was acquitted. The subversive activity initiated by the U. His feelings were heard around the world in President Nkruma welcomed DuBois and asked him to direct the government-sponsored Encyclopedia Africana.
The offer was accepted graciously and a year later, in dbuois final months of william life, DuBois became a Ghanian citizen and an official member of the Communist party.
Free At Last On August 27, on the eve of the March On Washington, DuBois died in Accra, Ghana. His role as a pioneering Pan-Africanist was memorialized by the few who understood the genius of the man and neglected by the many who were afraid that his loquacious espousals would unite the oppressed throughout the world into revolution.
Major References Dusk of Dawn W. Propagandist of the Negro Protest Elliott M. Rudwick Other References Black Revolutionary James R.
Willliam The Souls of Black Folks W. DuBois The Suppression of the African Slave Trade W. DuBois Some of the Major Offerings of W. DuBois The Philadelphia Negro The Suppression of the African Slave Trade Harvard Ph. Worlds of Color The Autobiography of W. DuBois The Education of Black People: